Precedence of (Catholic) European Rulers

I thought some surfers at Fabpedigree might find the following list of interest.

In order to settle ambassadorial protocol, in about 1504 A.D., Pope Julius II created a strict priority ordering among the Kings and Dukes of Catholic Europe. The list is probably based on a slightly older list, since some of the Kingdoms had ceased to exist by the time of Julius. The list underwent some further changes after Julius' time.

Some European Kings (e.g. Tsar of Russia) were not present on the list, which was only for those who recognized the Bishop of Rome as their overlord. The modern Kingdom of Sweden began in 1523: Sweden's separation from the Kingdom of Denmark was simultaneous with its separation from the Church of Rome.
Latin titleEnglish titleComment
Order of Kings
1. Imperator Caesar Holy Roman Emperor
King of the Germans
successor to Clovis and Charlemagne
2. Rex Romanorum King of the Romans same person as Emperor (or his son)
3. Rex Franciae King of France successor to Clovis and Charlemagne
4. Rex Hispaniae King of Spain (Castile and Leon) successor to Christian Visigoth Kings
5. Rex Arragoniae King of Aragon same person as King of Spain after 1504
6. Rex Portugalliae King of Portugal -
7. Rex Angliae King of England -
8. Rex Siciliae King of Sicily (and/or Naples) same person as King of Aragon (or his son) after 1501
9. Rex Scotiae King of Scots same person as King of England after 1603
10. Rex Hungariae King of Hungary same person as Emperor after 1526
(except Queen Maria Theresia, the last Habsburg)
11. Rex Navarrae King of Navarre same person as King of France after 1610
12. Rex Cipri King of Cyprus (no King after 1489, title assumed by Duke of Savoy)
13. Rex Bohemiae King of Bohemia same person as King of Hungary after 1490
14. Rex Poloniae King of Poland -
15. Rex Daniae King of Denmark (given, e.g. 11th century King Canute the Saint, Denmark's low precedence is something of a mystery.)
Fully sovereign states without royal ruler
(these were later additions)
Order of Dukes
16. Dux Britanniae Duke of Britanny same person as King of France after 1547
17. Dux Burgundiae Duke of Burgundy
Grand Duke of the West
same person as King of Spain after 1482; but Burgundy was divided and title soon fell into disuse.
18. Dux Bavariae, Comes Palatinus Elector Palatine of the Rhine Imperial Vicar in west and south
19. Dux Saxoniae Duke of Saxony Imperial Vicar in east and north
20. Marchio Brandenburgensis Margrave of Brandenburg Imperial Arch-Chamberlain
21. Dux Austriae Archduke of Austria same person as Emperor after 1438
22. Dux Sabaudiae Duke of Savoy eventually became King of Sardinia, later Italy
23. Dux Florentinae Reipublicae Grand Duke of Tuscany (given this precedence after 1569)
24. Dux Mediolanensis Duke of Milan (independence lost in 16th century wars, title claimed by King of France)
25. Dux Venetiarum Doge of Venice later promoted above Dukes
26. Dux Bavariae Duke of Bavaria -
27. Dux Lotharingiae Duke of Lorraine -
28. Dux Barthoniae Duke of Bourbon -
29. Dux Aurelianensis Duke of Orleans -
30. Dux Januae Doge of Genoa -
31. Dux Ferrariae Duke of Ferrara (no Duke after 1598)